Saturday, May 23, 2020
4 The Labour Market Context of HRM Chapter Objectives Ã¢â¬ ¢ To define internal and external labour markets Ã¢â¬ ¢ To outline the role of HRM as the interface between an organisation and its labour markets Ã¢â¬ ¢ To identify the changing labour market conditions under which contemporary organisations operate Ã¢â¬ ¢ To critically evaluate the implications for HRM of the Ã¢â¬Ëknowledge economyÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ To outline how labour market trends are impacting upon how organisations utilise labour and how HRM practices are driving labour market change Ã¢â¬ ¢ To outline the various ways that firms can respond to different labour market conditions Ã¢â¬ ¢ To outline the notion of organisational flexibility and how various forms of flexible working practices impactÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The latter 90 04-Wilton-4081-CH-04.indd 90 HRM IN CONTEXT 25/08/2010 7:10:18 PM refers to a strategy of recruiting required labour from outside the firm as and when needed. A Ã¢â¬ËmakeÃ¢â¬â¢ strategy is, therefore, internally-focused whilst a Ã¢â¬ËbuyÃ¢â¬â¢ strategy is externally-focused. The internal labour market The internal labour market refers to that which exists within a single organisation and represents its internal supply or stock of labour. In its broadest sense, the internal labour market is the mechanism by which existing employees are attributed particular roles within a firm. The specific characteristics of an organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s internal labour market are reflective of a number of HR policy emphases, for example, the level of investment in employee training and development, the availability of career development opportunities and the extent to which employee retention and job security are prioritised. Contextual factors, particularly the types of skills, knowledge and attributes required, also act to shape the Ã¢â¬ËtypeÃ¢â¬â¢ of internal labour market that exists within a firm. Depending on its characteristics, an internal labour market can fulfil a number of functions for an organisation. For example, in seeking to retain employees the internal labour market can act as a source of motivation and contribute to aShow MoreRelatedThe Liberal State Essay1454 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagescontrol over labour than ever before. The thought of the neo-liberal state as one that is more disengaged in its political economy functioning is a lost one. The neo-liberal state has demonstrated expanding duality, prompting inaction in specific zones, (for example, sanctioning of social security for the workforce), and while at the same time facilitating capital so as to exhibit deliberate efforts in different areas. This perspective is unmistakable from the prevailing talk on labour legislationRead MoreAmerica, Europe And Asia Are Governed By Different Employment Laws And Policies1645 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesFirstly, one must note that the USA, Europe and Asia are governed by different employment laws and policies. These regulate the extent to which working-time flexibility can be accounted for or constrained. Thus, these institutional contexts can either allow employers to impose flexible time, and employees to request it; or it might constrain both partiesÃ¢â¬â¢ ability, such that fixed shifts and minimum hours must be followed in a pre-determined manner (Sousa-Poza and Henneberger, 2002). Unlike, the Anglo-USRead MoreThe Impact Of Labour Flexibility On The International Management Of Human Resources1741 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesimplications of labour flexibility on the international management of Human Resources. Introduction In order to sustain in the business market and meet the consumer demands, the organizations and the employers of 21st century are required to come up with new methods and unbeatable prices of products and services. Moreover due to the emergence of globalisation, these organizations are bound to apply cost-cutting approach (lower wage approach), which influences the shifts in workforce composition, labour utilizationRead MoreThe World Is Changing And The Environment2069 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesorder to sustain in the business market and meet the consumer demands, the organizations and the employers are required to come up with new methods and unbeatable prices of products. Moreover due to the emergence of globalisation, these organizations are bound to apply cost-cutting approach (lower wage approach), which influences the shifts in workforce composition, labour utilization and labour demand. (Rani, 2000) This shift leads to what can be defined as Ã¢â¬Ëlabour flexibilityÃ¢â¬â¢. Acco rding to StandingRead MoreA Report On The Housekeeping Department1674 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIntroduction Housekeeping department is an important part of each hotel, which related to the hotel reputation and quality of services. There is a high labour intensive in the hospitality sector. The housekeeping department has a high demand of the room attendant. This research will conduct with the personal housekeeping experience in Meriton Serviced apartments. The Meriton serviced apartments are belong to the Meriton group, which is the largest and leading residential developer in AustraliaRead MoreGlobalization and Industrial Relation: Quite Entry of Labour Standard1892 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesENTRY OF LABOUR STANDARD * M.VENKATALAKSHMI **S.KRISHNAKUMARI ABSTRACT To understand the range of Industrial Relation challenge that employers and their organizations are likely to face in Asia and pacific during the next decade, it is necessary to appreciate the current as well as historical factors which have shaped and are sharpening such relations in the region. The early ministerial of WTO invariably found the west demanding core labour standardsRead MoreHuman Resource Management: Flexible Labour2153 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagescurrent human resources management thinking, providing justification for recent developments in more flexible and variable working patterns. Its need arises from the following: The changing business environment- highly competitive global product markets, an increasingly rapid advancements in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and increasing capital intensity of production. A changing social environmentÃ¢â¬â for example, the increasing female participation ratio and the trend towards earlyRead MoreChild Labour in Bangladesh Industry9607 Words Ã |Ã 39 Pagesshowing all the negative factors of the industrialization. Among those the child labour problem is the worst of its kind. Though In Bangladesh the unemployment rate is about 6.2 corer but in the labour force the child labour is very alarming. 8 % of children (5-14 years) in child labour (1999-2003) 10% of male children (5-14 years) in child labour (1999-2003) 5% of female children (5-14 years) in child labour (1999-2003) These are the situation according to UNICEF about the child labor positionRead MoreLabour Market Need 1234 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthese outcomes is a labour market need for migrant workers to fill jobs that indigenous workers reject (Fellini et al., 2007; Massey et al., 1998; Piore, 1979). However, this is not a spontaneous process and it is important to recognize the role played by labour market actors, particularly employers (or their agents) and the state (Bach, 2007; Rodriguez, 2004). Employers engage in active recruitment strategies to attract immigrant workers already in national labour markets or to recruit directlyRead MoreThe World Organizational And Industrial System Essay1701 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesassociations which transformed in Labour Unions today with a view to stand as a body to serve as intermediary and examining body between workers relationship with organization. This paper therefore, takes a look at Labour Unions as industrial body mostly related to workers, with a view to conceptualize as a body; take an historical overview of the Labour Union, the significance of Labour Unions and critical examination of achievement of the body in the industrial context and challenges being encountered
Monday, May 11, 2020
Human Developement 1 Culture and society have profound influences on a childÃ¢â¬â¢s growth and development and are important considerations for early childhood teachers if they wish to better understand children and provide higher quality early childhood education and services to children and their families, (Te Whaariki, Ministry of Education, 1996). One particular example of the effect that culture and society can have on the growth and development of a child is child-rearing practices. Different cultural groups and societies have diverse styles of child-rearing practices which are uniquely influenced by a range of values, beliefs and dominate assumptions (Berk, 2003). A significant factor in view of child-rearing practices is the roleÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Thus there is a clear link between child rearing practices, child interactions and children developing a wide range of cognitive skills. Child rearing practices which include a lot of child involvement encourage a childÃ¢â¬â¢s explorati on, extend cognitive development and help to extend new skills (Zhou, Huang, Wang, Wang, Zhao, Yang and Yang, 2006). Many features of child rearing practices are not only dependent on the education of the caregivers, but also how the caregivers themselves have been raised. If caregivers were raised with an awareness of the value of nutritious meals they will be more likely to provided good nutrition to their children and help children reach optimal levels of physical growth (Berk, 2003) If caregivers value physical activity themselves, or participated in it regularly as a child, they will be more likely to provide an environment where a child can engage physically, such as a bike to ride, or sports equipment. This is all dependent 4 however, on such factors as the health of the parents and/or the level of household income which may be different from that experienced by the caregiver as a child. Even the most physically active caregivers may not be able to support the child to engage in sporting activities which require specific gear, fees, or costly trips to the local pools. If however child rearing practices encourage children even to engage in simple outside play, such as running, or climbing a tree aShow MoreRelatedThe Theories Of Human Development774 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesTheories of Human development are relevant and matter in the Ã¢â¬Å"real worldÃ¢â¬ . In my clinical practice as a psychologist-in-training, I have found human development theories to be very useful in conceptualizing and understanding my clientÃ¢â¬â¢s distress. I used theoretical frameworks that are based on theories of human development to guide my interventions in therapy. For example, as a brief psychodynamic clinician, I look to Fr eudÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of anxiety to understand how distress was developed for my clientsRead MoreAn Interview On Human Development2242 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesHuman development is a complex lifelong process that begins when a person is in the womb of their mother and it extends to their death. Every person moves through similar stages of life as they age and move from infancy, childhood, and adulthood. However, every person within this world has their own personal development with individuality, thought process, and life as they are exposed to different environmental experiences and biology. An interview was conducted with two different individuals thatRead MoreLanguage As An Important Part Of Human Development1419 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesdefines language as Ã¢â¬Å"the method of human communication, either spoken or written, consisting of the use of words in a structured and conventional wayÃ¢â¬ , however this statement is not completely correct. Language is the ability to use and unde rstand complex forms of communication, through symbols, sounds and gestures. According to the American Speech, Language and Hearing Association, language goes beyond just being able to speak. It is an important part of human development Ã¢â¬Å"The ability to understand andRead MoreHuman Development Index1601 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages The critical difference between most development models and the human development index is that most development models only focus on income while the human development index includes the enlargement of all human choices Ã¢â¬â economic, political, social and cultural which all affect income. Comparing countriesÃ¢â¬â¢ Gross National Product/Gross Domestic Product per capita is the most common way of measuring the level of development today. This model of economic growth assessment is based on a weak foundationRead MoreHuman Development Index1635 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIntroduction: The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic used to rank countries by level of human development and separate very high human development, high human development, medium human development, and low human development countries. The Human Development Index (HDI) is a comparative measure of life expectancy, literacy, education and standards of living for countries worldwide. It is a standard means of measuring well-being, especially child welfare. It is used toRead MoreEssay Case Study of Human Development736 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesCase Study of Human Development Anne is a 22-year-old Caucasian female currently enrolled in college. She is enrolled as a full time student majoring in Criminal Justice. She lives in a single room on campus and is three hours away from her family. She is currently in the Later Adolescence stage of development and is dealing with several different life issues. During the previous life stage, Early Adolescence, several developmental tasks had to be dealt with by the subject. While physicalRead MoreHuman Development Report1826 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesAccording to the interactive map corresponding to the latest human development report, more developed areas in the world are Europe, North America, most countries in South America, North part of Asia, North part of Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, South Korea and Malaysia. Most countries in Africa and South part of Asia are considered as less developed areas. On the line graph we can see an upward trend in development for most of the countries. Moreover, some countries have been developingRead MoreAnalysis Of Human Development And Development Stages2768 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesAnalysis of Human Development David W. Miller Liberty University Ã¢â¬Æ' Abstract How one goes through different development stages in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life, can drastically affect how they are later in life. During oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life, there are different development stages one goes through: starting with infancy and heading up to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s death. OneÃ¢â¬â¢s family background, culture background, social environment, etc. has a huge impact on how we deal with the development milestones in our life. It will also play out how we viewRead MoreThe Human Development Index ( Hdi )922 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Human Development Index (HDI) does a pronounced disservice to India. India, a country that, through economic miracles and perseverance, has risen from the ranks of the poorest in the world to a middle-income country in the span of only a few decades. The HDI Report, which is not universally applicable and applies too much weight in certain areas, makes certain countries look better than they should or, in IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s case, artificially lower its ranking among t he world. So, although skewed, whatRead MoreQuestions On The Human Development Index1748 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIB Mathematical Studies 2015- Internal Assessment What is the relationship between percent of the population that uses the internet and the human development index? Candidate Number: 003047-0024 Table of Contents Title PageÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦1 Statement of IntentÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦3 Raw DataÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦5 Scatter PlotÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.6 PearsonÃ¢â¬â¢s product-moment correlation coefficientÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦7 Least Squares
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
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(20) Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Trada Lalit V. (60) Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- RajdevBrijesh (46) Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Ozha Sandip (47) Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Ã¢â ¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â Batch: 2010-12 Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- About The company Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- US company Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Manufacturing auto parts Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Selling in Domestic as well as foreign Market Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Most of the Products related withÃ¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â Automobiles Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Trucks Buses Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Farm Equipments Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Product Marketing Division Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Production Division: * Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Company works on Three Parts. 1. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Ignition Parts 2. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Transmission Parts. 3. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Engine Parts. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Marketing Division: * Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Selling Through two Department. 1. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- O. E. M. department. 2. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- A. M. department. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- EXHIBIT 1 Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Partial Organization Chart Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â ¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Inside Outside sales In 1992; * Total sales $500 million Inside sales (to AM div) Ã¢â¬â $100 million Outside Sales (to OEM)- $400 million * Ignition parts sales- $130million * Engine parts sales- $90million * Transmission parts sales Ã¢â¬â $100million * AM Division sales- $180 million ROI for the Manufacturing Plants * Each Plant has to meet targeted ROI. ROI = Budgeted Profit Actual beginning-of-the -year net assets Where Budgeted Profit =( Expected Revenue- allocated O/H- tax) Actual beginning-of-the-year net assets = total assets-current liabilities. Actual 1992 ROI computation- Rochester Plant Abrams company Ã¢â¬âTransmission PartsDivision ROCHESTER PLANT Profit ROI Statement,Dec 31,1992 Sales revenueÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦$124,866 COGSÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 73230 Gross MarginÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 51636 Operating expensesÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â ¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 20792 Division Expenses assignedÃ¢â¬ ¦.. 11340 corporate expenses assignedÃ¢â¬ ¦. 3420 Profit before taxesÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 16084 Taxes ImputedÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 4825 ProfitÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. $11259 * Net Assets Assigned as of January 1,1992 Total Assets: Cash receivableÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. $25000 Inventories Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 12875 Property, plant equipment at book valueÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 86560 Total Assets Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 124435 Less: current liabilitiesÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 26135 Net AssetsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. $98300 ROI = Profit / Net Assets = $11259/ 98300 =11. 45% Suggestions to improve evaluation system: * ROI can be used combination with other performance measures-balanced set of long term/short term; financial/non-financial * EVA can be used instead of ROI. Marketing Strategies * Top Management consider OEM AM different. * Each parts? OEM sales have to meet an Annual Sales Revenue. * The OEM department have toÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 1. Minimize inventories. 2. Control cost. * AM has to concentrate on availability of Parts. Incentive compensation Plan Appropriate 50 line staff managers under plan. * Bonus given on basis of fixed formula. * Each participant get bonus on standard bonus point(SBP). * SBP based on hierarchical position. Standard dollar award per point (SDAP) = total of SBP of all participants total bonus pool amount Standard Bonus in $ = Standard Dollar ? S tandard Bonus Point Award per point. of Participant. if Actual Profit ^ 4% more than budgeted, Manager get 25% more standard bonus. Evaluation of incentive compensation plan: * The performance is measured by compare of actual profit and budget profit. All the measurement is associate with data, sometimes the performance will be influence by variance elements, such as, economic environment, the demand level, material price, cost of labor, and government policy, so the measurement need to improve in some areas. Suggestions: * The non-financial performance measurement system should be established. * The balanced scorecard is a good choice for company measure performance. With a good performance measurement system, the incentive compensation plan will be improved. Problems encountered with Management * Some dispute over transfer pricing. Bias with AM division on placing order of parts. * All divisions using too much inventories. Question- 1 Evaluate each of the concerns expressed by top management, if necessary, make recommendations appropriate to the circumstances described in the case. Ans-1 * Management has 3 main problems: 1. ROI Behavior. 2. Transfer Price disputes 3. Operational trouble shouting. Recommendations * Company should use EVA rather than ROI. * Company should control the investments separately using NPV and capital turnover measures. * Bonus should be based on the budgeted income level. * Company should change the TP method. It will give all internal partners full information about the cost structure and company will avoid Ã¢â¬Å"upstream fixed costsÃ¢â¬ . Question- 2 What is your overall evaluation of Abrams? management control system ? Describe strengths or weakness that you identified but did not include in answering the previous question. What changes, if any, would you recommend to top management ? Ans-2 * Company Management Control System was poor. * Company failed to minimize the cost and to control inventory level. Strength * The compan y has a clear management structure. * The company has employed a bonus plan for employees. The AM Marketing division will input products form the other three divisions, and sell it to domestic and foreign market, it helps the company save cost when it input internal. Weakness * The Abrams Company has three totally independent divisions, and the three divisions are lack of connection. * The transactions between the three divisions dispute the transfer pricing. * OEM customers preferred than AM. Suggestions * Top management should try to control inventory level. * Company should use non financial measures like inventory turnover. * If it is an strategic issue company should connect this measure to the bonus system. How to cite Case Solution on Abrasm Company, Essay examples
Thursday, April 30, 2020
Whitman 1855 What was Walt doing at this time? Late in 1854, Whitman was working in carpentry. He is assumed to have started his writings for what would later be known, and published as Leaves of Grass in late 1854 or early 1855. One of his brothers once commented that Walt would get an idea while working, write it down, then take the rest of the day off. How did Walt get his book published? Allen contends that Walt probably sought out a commercial publisher to take his book at first, though there is no mention or proof of this. However, Whitman took his book to the Rome brothers, James and Thomas, who had a printing shop on the corner of Fulton and Cranberry. These two men were friends of Walt. They let Walt supervise their work and even help in the setting of some of the type. Whitman is thought to have set about ten pages. However, the frontispiece and probably the binding had to be done somewhere else. Some think that the book went on sale on July 4, but it isn't probable that any book stores were open on that day. However, an advertisement appeared in The New York Tribune on July 6 for the book. How did Walt come up with the money for the books? We can't answer this for sure, but one fact may shed some light on the subject: The Whitman's bought a house on May 24, 1855, on Ryerson Street. Mrs. Whitman was given legal permission to sign the papers because her husband was ill. The house was purchased for $1,840. Therefore, it is a possibility that Walt got money from his mother. How did Walt advertise the book? The two bookstores that advertised the book in The New York Tribune were: Swayne, No. 210 Fulton St., Brooklyn, and Fowler and Wells, No. 308 Broadway, NY. However, four days later, Swayne withdrew from the advertisement. Fowler and Wells ran it for the entire month. What of the book? How did it come about? What about that picture? Those who looked at the book were confronted with a steel engraved frontispiece portrait of Whitman. He was wearing work jeans, shirt with unbuttoned collar, and a felt hat cocked to an outrageous angle. This picture was originally a daguerreotype taken in July of the previous year by Gabriel Harrison, a friend of Whitman's. Whitman placed the order for the engraving with Macrae in NY, but Macrae didn't have the knowledge or resources for a stipple print, so the order was given to Hollyer, a stipple expert. Years later, Hollyer sent a publisher, Herbert Small, a letter in which Hollyer described a chance meeting with Whitman soon after the engraving was finished. Hollyer met up with Whitman at a restaurant and talked to him about the portrait, asking him what he thought. Whitman said he liked it but would like to have some alterations made. The next morning, Whitman brought the plate in to Hollyer and told him what he wanted. Hollyer made the alterations quickly, with professional attention. A couple days later, Whitman walked into Hollyer's office with freshly printed volumes of Leaves of Grass and presented Hollyer with the first copy issued. How did the book itself come across to the American public? There was no author's name on the book, or on the title page, just his portrait. But, if one looked closely enough, Walter Whitman held the copyright. The book was printed in an odd style. There were no titles to the poems, and the print ran clear across the page, making the book awkward to anyone in 1855, as this was not the style in which books were printed. Whitman had about a thousand copies printed, but not all were bound. An estimated two or three hundred were bound in cloth, and some were bound in paper covers, being sold by Fowler and Wells several months after the original advertisement at the lower price of seventy five cents. It is estimated that only a couple dozen people bought the book. How did Whitman take the sales, or lack of sales? Whitman made a statement later in the year, in a moment of self advertisement, that the book "readily sold," but later, in his old age, he stated that not a single copy was bought and that he himself kept only one copy. More probable is that the extra copies, after having been on the shelves for some time, were given away as gifts by both
Saturday, March 21, 2020
Crusades A paper essays Pope Urban II had called the Christians to join him in a Holy War to reclaim the Holy Lands as an act of Christianity, but there were many activities that took place that werent characteristics of Christianity. The Crusades were a smokescreen for Popes The Crusades were the idea of Pope Urban II, a wise Frenchman. On November 18, 1095 AD, Pope Urban II opened the Council of Clermont. Nine days later, the Pope made a very important speech just outside the French city of Clermont-Ferrand. In his speech, he asked the people to help the Christians effort to restore peace to the East. The Crusades had originally been to help the Churches in the East, but the now it was to reclaim the Holy Land, especially Jerusalem from the Muslims. Pope Urban II stayed in France until September 1096 in hopes of providing leadership for the First Crusaders. Urban had originally hoped for the crusading army to be composed of mostly knights and other warriors, but his speech had already began spreading throughout the west, and many people of different social classes started joining the crusading army. (Foss, Michael. pg. 23) Because of this Urban lost all control of the army, which led to the slaughter of Jews in northern France. These poor people also caused strain on the armies supplies and discipline. They were never trained and they were poor, so they couldnt bring anything and were poorly disciplined(Foss, Michael. pg. 24). The entire crusading army had planned on reaching the city of Constantinople, but because of their lack of supplies and training the vast majority of them were slaughtered before they got there. The few troops that did reach Constantinople split up into two groups. One group tried to capture Nicaea, a key city that blocked the road of their supply routes. This group was unsuccessful. The other group was attacked near the city of Civetot in October...
Wednesday, March 4, 2020
Women in Shakespeares Richard III In his play, Richard III, Shakespeare draws on historical facts about several historical women to tell his story. Their emotional reactions reinforce that Richard the villain is the logical conclusion of many years of intrafamily conflict and family politics. The Wars of the Roses were about two branches of the Plantagenet family and a few other closely-related families fighting each other, often to the death. In the Play These women have lost husbands, sons, fathers, or will by the end of the play. Most have been pawns in the marriage game, but nearly all of them who are depicted have had some direct influence on the politics. Margaret (Margaret of Anjou) led armies. Queen Elizabeth (Elizabeth Woodville) promoted her own familys fortunes, making her responsible for the enmity she earned. The Duchess of York (Cecily Neville) and her brother (Warwick, the Kingmaker) were angry enough when Elizabeth married Edward that Warwick changed his support to Henry VI, and the Duchess left court and had little contact with her son, Edward, before his death. Anne Nevilles marriages linked her first with the Lancastrian heir apparent and then with a Yorkist heir. Even little Elizabeth (Elizabeth of York) by her very existence holds power: once her brothers, the Princes in the Tower, are dispatched, the king who marries her has locked up a tighter claim on the crown, though Richard has declared Elizabeth Woodvilles marriage to Edward IV invalid and therefore Elizabeth of York illegitimate. Is History More Interesting Than the Play? But the histories of these women are much more interesting than even the stories that Shakespeare tells. Richard III is in many ways a propaganda piece, justifying the takeover by the Tudor/Stuart dynasty, still in power in Shakespeares England, and at the same time pointing out the dangers of fighting among the royal family. So Shakespeare compresses time, attributes motivations, depicts as facts some incidents that are matters of pure speculation, and exaggerates events and characterizations. Anne Neville Probably the most changed life story is that of Anne Neville. In Shakespeares drama she appears at the beginning at the funeral of her father-in-law (and Margaret of Anjous husband), Henry VI, shortly after her own husband, the Prince of Wales, has also been killed in a battle with Edwards forces. That would be the year 1471 in actual history. Historically, Anne marries Richard, Duke of Gloucester, the next year. They had a son, who was alive in 1483 when Edward IV died suddenly an death Shakespeare has follow quickly on Richards seduction of Anne, and has precede, rather than follow, her marriage to him. Richard and Annes son would be too difficult to explain in his changed timeline, so the son disappears in Shakespeares story. Margaret of Anjou Then theres Margaret of Anjous story: historically, she was actually already dead when Edward IV died. She had been imprisoned right after her husband and son were killed, and after that imprisonment was not at the English court to curse anyone. She was actually then ransomed by the King of France; she ended her life in France, in poverty. Cecily Neville The Duchess of York, Cecily Neville, not only wasnt the first to identify Richard as a villain, she probably worked with him to gain the throne. Wheres Margaret Beaufort? Why did Shakespeare leave out a very important woman,Ã Margaret Beaufort?Ã Henry VIIs mother spent most of Richard IIIs reign organizing opposition to Richard.Ã She was under house arrest for much of Richards reign, as a result of an early rebellion.Ã But perhaps Shakespeare didnt think it politic to remind the audience of the very important role of a woman in bringing the Tudors to power?
Monday, February 17, 2020
Turkish Airlines Current 4Ps Marketing Policies - Essay Example As of today, almost 51% of its shares are owned by the public, whereas, the remaining are retained by the government. Over the years the company has flourished to the extent that, in 2008 it was named as one of the fastest growing European carriers in terms of traffic and seating capacity (Turkish Airlines, 1996-2012). At a time when the global recession caused other European airlines to cut down their operations, Turkish Airlines managed to demonstrate steady growth in terms of its passenger traffic and seating capacity. The company has over 127 carriers in its fleet and flies to over 145 international and 41 local destinations (Turkish Airlines, 1996-2012). Istanbul is primarily considered to be its gateway to various Middle East destinations. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s overall business strategy revolves around expansion and development of its operations. As part of recognition for its strategic efforts, it has been labeled as a four-star airline (Skytrax, 1999-2011). The company, theref ore, is now eyeing the five-star segment and is enhancing the quality and service of its carriers in order to enhance customer experience. An essential part of its overall strategy, therefore, is inevitably the marketing strategy. Holistically, the company is aiming at creating greater brand awareness amongst its target market and to position itself differently from competitors in terms of reliability, safety and quality. The company is targeting the attainment of crucial values such as customer safety and quality service as well as providing value for money. Therefore, the focus of this airline is to provide low cost fares with unmatched quality of customer experience. The 4PÃ¢â¬â¢s for the company involve the Product (airline service), Price (fares), Promotion and Place (destinations in this case). As far as the product is concerned, the company has targeted its airline service to a wide range of segments. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s primary target market is the leisure customers who m ake up a vast chunk of its overall passengers. The secondary market is the corporate segment, comprising of business executives and corporate individuals. Such customers require corporate discounts (that are perhaps endowed to them by their organizations) since they travel is high volumes. Turkish Airlines has kept this trend in mind and has offered quantity discounts in markets where a large number of multinationals are located. There are several MNCs in Europe such as Shell, Delloit, Deutsche Bank etc that have high volume of business travelers. The company derives a major chunk of its revenues from the Ã¢â¬Å"leisureÃ¢â¬ segment, as opposed to the business segment. According to a research, 54% of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s market share is derived by Ã¢â¬Å"leisureÃ¢â¬ segment, whereas, 32% is derived from Ã¢â¬Å"corporateÃ¢â¬ segment. A common terminology used in aviation is that of the load factor which is described as the relation between the aircraftÃ¢â¬â¢s lift capabilit y to its weight. Turkish AirlineÃ¢â¬â¢s load factor has declined over the years, from a rate of 71.5% to 71% (Centre for Aviation, 2010). The company is now taking steps to ensure that its load factor increases, especially during the peak summer period. An efficient load factor of approximately 77% is ideally looked upon as a healthy sign since it shows that the weight is being efficiently utilized through passenger traffic. A crucial aspect of Turkish AirlineÃ¢â¬â¢s marketing policies has been a focus on Turkish tourism, of which Istanbul is a highly